Hackensack River

Category: Waterbodies & Other Wetlands Hackensack River

Location: Begins in Rockland County, New York, flowing down through the middle of the HMD, and eventually outlets into the Newark Bay at Kearny Point.

Current Land Use: Open Water

Site Description: The key waterbody in the HMD is the Hackensack River, a 50-mile southward course that drains the Hackensack River watershed, approximately 197 square miles in size. The Oradell Dam was constructed to supply potable water to northern New Jersey and has essentially separated the Hackensack River into two distinct components: the upper river (above the dam) and the lower river (below the dam). The upper river is a controlled freshwater section with major inputs coming from industrial and municipal discharges, stormwater runoff, and water spilling over the dam. The lower river and its tributaries are part of a brackish estuary in which tidal fluctuations and seasonal water events permit flooding of the adjacent wetland areas. The majority of the river’s lower reaches are located in the HMD. The Hackensack River provides hydrologic support to adjacent wetland areas, preserving the wetlands and their diverse flora and fauna. Additionally, opportunities exist for observation, education, and scientific activities relative to the environment and the quality of the river. The river also provides for commercial and recreational uses.

Existing Site-Specific Data Inventory

A. Survey, Maps, and GIS

HMD regional data exists inclusive of this site. Detailed surveys completed in 1999 and 2000. Historical maps are included in site history reports from 1896 and the 1970′s.

B. Real Estate/Ownership

Ownership history along the river was compiled in 1973.

C. Site History & Land Use

Site history reports for the HMD were compiled in 1973 and 1978.

D. Biological Studies – Fauna

Various invertebrate and fish studies were conducted between 1974 and 2003.

E. Biological Studies – General Environmental

Various general environmental assessments were conducted between 1958 and 1994. A biological resources inventory was completed for the HMD for a draft EIS in 1985.

F. Geotechnical

Baseline geologic data collected for the Hackensack River Basin in 1976. General soils/geologic data collected for the HMD for a draft EIS and an environmental and health impact statement in 1985.

G. Hydraulics and Hydrology

Flood control survey conducted in 2000; study conducted between 1998 and 2004, including a one-dimensional hydrological (“parent”) model for the river. Various other hydrology studies were conducted from 1974 to 1991.

H. Water and Sediments

Many water and sediment quality studies were conducted between 1974 to 2003.

I. Historical/Cultural Resources

A cultural resource study for a portion of the river near Laurel Hill was conducted in 1982. General Baseline data was collected for a BCUA impact study in 1985.

J. Restoration/Remediation Design Plans

A pollution abatement plan for the river was completed in 1964.

Site Reports

Site #35 – Hackensack River

Category: Waterbodies & Other Wetlands

Location: Begins in Rockland County, New York, flowing down through the middle of the HMD, and eventually outlets into the Newark Bay at Kearny Point.

Current Land Use: Open Water

Site Description: The key waterbody in the HMD is the Hackensack River, which drains the Hackensack River watershed, approximately 197 square miles in size, two-thirds of which is located in Bergen and Hudson counties. The Oradell Dam was constructed to supply potable water to northern New Jersey and has essentially separated the Hackensack River into two distinct components: the upper river (above the dam) and the lower river (below the dam). The upper river is a controlled freshwater section in which the flow is inhibited, while the lower river, its tributaries, and the adjoining wetlands comprise a brackish estuary influenced by the semi-diurnal tides. The 50-mile southward course of the river parallels that of the nearby Hudson River to the east, with the majority of the river’s lower reaches located in the HMD.

Within the HMD, the major inputs of freshwater to the Hackensack River come from industrial and municipal discharges, stormwater runoff, and water spilling over the Oradell Dam. In the lower reaches, tidal fluctuations and seasonal water events permit flooding of adjacent wetland areas along the river and its tributaries. The river provides hydrologic support to the adjoining wetland areas, preserving wetlands and their diverse flora and fauna. Additionally, opportunities exist for observation, education, and scientific activities relative to the environment and the quality of the river. The river also provides for commercial and recreational uses.

Existing Site Specific Data Inventory

* – Report repeated under multiple data categories and/or sites.

A.  Survey, Maps, and GIS

Relevant survey, mapping, and GIS data for the Meadowlands can be found in the Meadowlands-wide site report under data category A.

1.      *ERDC, HMDC, & USACE – NYD. Flood Control Survey. 2000. [2a] Survey performed for the HMD that consisted of: 1) cross-sections along the Hackensack River and its major tributaries, including Berry’s Creek, Penhorn Creek, Sack Creek, and the Cayuga Dyke; 2) identifying 30 flood control structures along the Hackensack River; and 3) locating all bridges and piers within the study area. In addition, digital aerials were flown and geo-referenced. The vertical datum for the survey was NGVD29. At 13 of the 30 flood control structures, tide gages and single beam acoustic Doppler current meters were installed and monitored to measure velocity, head difference, and discharge at these locations.

2.      *HMDC. A Historical Consideration of Tidal Flow in the Hackensack Meadowlands. July, 1973. [2a] Compilation of historical evidence relating to tidal flow to assist in determining ownership of the Meadowlands along the Hackensack River. The report including maps and historical data.

3.      *Rogers Surveying, Inc. Hackensack River Survey: Lower Portion. March 1999. [4] Survey performed for the USACE-NYD as part of an annual condition survey for various maintenance purposes (i.e. potential dredge planning, navigation, etc.). The survey covered the Hackensack River from the junction of the Hackensack and Passaic Rivers up to a point north of the turning basin in the river. Vertical datum for the survey was NGVD29.

4.      *Rogers Surveying, Inc. Hackensack River Survey: Upper Portion. March 1999. [4] Survey performed for the Operations Division of the USACE-NYD, generated at one-foot contour intervals from the top of the bank to the approximate location of the mean low water line. The survey covered an area along the northwest corner of the junction of the Hackensack River and Berry’s Creek. Vertical datum for the survey was NGVD29.

5.      Vermeule C.C. Annual Report of the New Jersey Geological Survey for 1896: Map of Hackensack Meadows to Illustrate Report on Drainage. 1896. [2a] A map contained in an annual report published by Macrellish & Quigley, Trenton, New Jersey for the New Jersey Geological Survey for 1986. The map was a figure for a section of the annual report entitled “Drainage of the Hackensack and Newark Tide Marshes.”

6.      *Woodward-Clyde Consultants. Triaxial Thermal Plume Monitoring Program for Hudson and Kearny Generating Stations: Final Report. 1976. [1a] Presented results of a triaxial temperature program conducted to satisfy the monitoring requirements of the USEPA NPDES permits for PSEG (formerly PSE&G). Included methodology used, hydrology of the Hackensack River, and triaxial survey results. Surface distributions and cross-section views are presented for each of the four stages of the tide. A bathymetric survey was conducted to obtain river bottom profiles along each transect.

B.   Real Estate/Ownership

7.      *HMDC. A Historical Consideration of Tidal Flow in the Hackensack Meadowlands. July, 1973. [2a] Compilation of historical evidence relating to tidal flow to assist in determining ownership of the Meadowlands along the Hackensack River. The report including maps and historical data.

C.  Site History & Land Use

8.      *HMDC. A Historical Consideration of Tidal Flow in the Hackensack Meadowlands. July, 1973. [2a] Compilation of historical evidence relating to tidal flow to assist in determining ownership of the Meadowlands along the Hackensack River. The report including maps and historical data.

9.      *Mattson, C. P. Ecological and Resource Management Plan for the Hackensack Meadowlands. 1978. [1a]A synopsis of what the then eight-year-old HMDC had learned about the Hackensack Estuary. Section 1 is an ecological primer, Section 2 provides information on the state of the estuary, and Section 3 presents natural resource management strategies for wetlands, water quality, open space, and land use planning.

D.  Biological Studies – Fauna

10.  *Anselmini, Ludwig D. An Ecological Study of the Hackensack River in the Vicinity of the Hudson Generating Station, Jersey City, New Jersey. July 1974. [1] Presents the results of in-depth studies conducted in the Hackensack River, including two fisheries studies completed between 1971 and 1973, an Ichthyoplankton study completed between 1972 and 1973, a Phytoplankton study done in 1973, a Zooplankton study done in 1972, and a Benthos study completed between 1972 and 1973.

11.  Belton, Thomas, Bruce Ruppel, & Rovert Hazen (NJDEP). A Study of Dioxin Contamination in Select Finfish, Crustaceans, and Sediment of New Jersey Waterways. 1985. [1a] Samples were collected in the Passaic River, especially around the Diamond Alkai plant, as well as in the Hackensack River. Analyzed blue crabs for dioxin contamination, among other species.

12.  Bragin, A. Brett. (HMDC). An Inventory of Fishery Resources of the Hackensack River. [4] Basic water quality and fishery data were collected at 21 sites.

13.  *Bragin, A. Brett, W. Frame, M. Kraus, D. Smith, A. Goeller, J. Graviec, & E. Konsevick. Inventory of Fisheries Resources of the Hackensack River within the Jurisdictional Boundary of the Hackensack Meadowlands Development Commission from Kearny, Hudson County, to Ridgefield, Bergen County, New Jersey. May 18, 1989. [1] A two-year survey (2/1987 to 12/1988) initiated by HMDC of the lower Hackensack River to ascertain the fisheries values of the river and help guide intelligent decisions on development applications.

14.  *EA Science and Technology & PSE&G. Kearny Generating Station Supplemental 316(b) Report. NJDEP. 1988. [1a] Evaluates the effects of the cooling water intake of the Kearny Generating Station on the ecology of the Hackensack River and adjacent waters, based on entrainment and impingement data collected from June 1987 to April 1988, and on biological data collected from the vicinity of the Kearny station since August 1986. Studies of macrozooplankton, ichthyoplankton, and juvenile and adult fish were conducted in vicinity of the station and the full length of the estuary. Includes background information on the Hackensack Estuary.

15.  ERM-Southeast, Inc. 1.2.D Existing and Proposed Regional Plans: Task 1. 1985. [1a] A general literature search done by ERM-Southwest, Inc. This volume is a comprehensive review of all existing regional plans that encompass the project area (Berry’s Creek area). Zoning, water quality and flood management, air quality, quasi-govenrmental agency plans, and major development proposals were reviewed.

16.  Homa, J. Jr., P. G. Broskus, & T. W. Woithe (Ichthyological Associates, Inc.). A Survey of the Hackensack River, with Special Reference to Anadromus Fishes, in April and May 1976. December 1976. [4] Fishes were sampled by gill net and beach seine, and selected physicochemical parameters – air and water temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, salinity, pH, and transparency – were measured in six regions of the Hackensack River and Newark Bay.

17.  Ichthyological Associates, Inc. An Ecological Study of the Hackensack River in the Vicinity of the Bergen Generating Station Public Service Electric & Gas Company. 1974. [1a] Provides results (data tables) of fishes collected by trawl and seine during 1971, 1972, and 1973 in the Hackensack River in the vicinity of the Bergen Generating Station. Also includes the results of impingement samples collected from the traveling screens in 1972 and 1973, as well as the collecteion of ichthyoplankton samples in 1972 and 1973, phytoplankton samples in 1973, zooplankton samples in 1972, and benthic invertebrates in 1972 and 1973.

18.  *Ichthyological Associates, Inc. Predictive Biological Information to Demonstrate the Passage and Maintenance of Representative Important Species: Demonstration Type III-Section 316 (a) of Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, PL 92-500 for Hudson and Kearny Generating Stations. 1978. [1a] Provides the results of laboratory studies on the temperature preference, temperature avoidance, and susceptibility to heat shock and cold shock of representative important species for the PSEG (formerly PSE7G) Hudson and Kearny generating stations. For each representative important species, life history, distribution in relation to water temperature, results and analysis of thermal effects experiments, and the predicted response to the Hudson and Kearny generating stations thermal plumes are discussed. Appendix B contains mathematical projections of the thermal plumes from the Hudson and Kearny generating stations.

19.  Ichthyological Associates, Inc. Effect of Reduced Levels of Dissolved Oxygen on the Avoidance Temperatures of the White Perch, Morone Americana, Blueback Herring, Alosa Aestivalis, and Atlantic Silverside, Menidia Menidia: Final Report. 1980. [1a] Provides the results of a laboratory study completed for PSEG to determine if the behavioral avoidance temperatures exhibited by selected estuarine fishes at near air-saturated levels of DO were significantly different at reduced levels of DO.

20.  *Jack McCormick & Associates, Inc. Collections of Aquatic Organisms from the Hackensack Meadowlands, Bergen and Hudson Counties, NJ. 1977. [1a]Study undertaken to obtain a large number of biological samples from the waters and wetlands at eight stations in the central meadowlands. Samples were collected during three days in October 1976. Specimens were identified, labeled, packaged, and frozen. The concentrations of mercury in the samples collected were to be determined at a later date under a separate contract.

21.  *Kraus, Mark L. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Pre-fledging Tree Swallows, Tachycineta bicolor Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1989. [1a] A total of ten sediment, nine adult midge, twelve swallow eggs, and six pre-fledgling swallows samples were analyzed for Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Ni. The study demonstrated that heavy metals can move from contaminated estuarine sediments through midges and bioaccumulate in pre-fledgling tree swallows. The accumulation of metals in bird tissues is dependant on the tissue and metal type.

22.  Kraus, M. and A. B. Bragin. Utilization of the Hackensack River by the Atlantic Tomcod (Microgadus tomcod). Bulletin of the New Jersey Academy of Science 35(1): 25-27. 1990. [4] Discusses the use of the Hackensack River by the threatened Atlantic Tomcod across its life stages, which has inhabited the Hackensack Estuary since at least 1972.

23.  Lo Pinto, Richard W. Primary Production Potential in the Central Hackensack River. 1979. [1a] A four season investigation of K, N, nicotinic acid, thiamine, cyanocobolamine, and biotin on biological productivity to determine which of these chemicals are limiting nutrients and which are not.

24.  *Malcolm Pirnie, Inc. Bergen County Resource Recovery Facility: Draft Environment and Health Impact Statement. BCUA. 1985. [1a] Draft Environmental and Health Impact Statement submitted to NJDEP Division of Solid Waste, which included: 1) a flood insurance study; 2) historical and cultural reconnaissance; 3) biological resources inventories; 4) soils data; 5) water quality data; 6) recycling coordination/correspondence, 7) groundwater monitoring results (metals and nutrients); 8) coastal resources policies report; 8) supporting air quality impact documentation; 10) incineration bottom ash residue research study, and 11) habitat evaluation/mitigation plan. Although the proposed project is in Ridgefield, extensive biological resources inventories included the entire HMD.

25.  *NJMC & MERI. Fisheries Inventory of the Hackensack River within the Hackensack Meadowlands District. (8/2001 – 9/2003).  A two-year survey of fisheries resources within the Hackensack River and selected tributaries within the HMD was completed in September of 2003. Data was collected on a monthly and seasonal basis. A Fisheries Inventory Report is currently being drafted and is expected to be completed by December 2004.

26.  *PSE&G Company. Demonstration of Absence of Prior Appreciable Harm Respecting Application for Imposition of Alternative Thermal Effluent Limitations Bergen Steam Electric Generating Station Units No. 1 and No. 2. 1974. [1a] Presented data to the USEPA to demonstrate that the final thermal effluent limitations specified in the draft NPDES Discharge Permit for the Bergen Generating Station are more stringent than necessary to assure the protection and propagation of a balanced, indigenous population of fish, shellfish, and wildlife in and on the Hackensack River. In addition to providing information on the absence of prior harm, presented engineering and hydrologic data, water quality data, and a proposed thermal plume mapping study.

27.  *PSE&G Company. Demonstration of Absence of Prior Appreciable Harm Respecting Application for Imposition of Alternative Thermal Effluent Limitations Kearny Steam Electric Generating Station Units No. 7 and No. 8. 1974. [1a] Presented data to the USEPA to demonstrate that the final thermal effluent limitations specified in the draft NPDES Discharge Permit for the Kearny Generating Station are more stringent than necessary to assure the protection and propagation of a balanced, indigenous population of fish, shellfish, and wildlife in and on the Hackensack River. In addition to providing information on the absence of prior harm, presented engineering and hydrologic data, water quality data, and a proposed thermal plume mapping study.

28.  *PSE&G Company & Ichthyological Associates, Inc. Effect of the Cooling Water Intake Structure – Entrainment and Impingement of Fishes: Hudson Generating Station NPDES Permit No. NJ0000647, Demonstration for Section 316(b) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, PL 92-500. 1979. [1a] Assessment of the environmental impact of the cooling water intake structure for Units 1 & 2 of the Hudson Generating Station. The specific environmental effects addressed were: 1) the passage of fish larvae through the cooling water system (entrainment) and 2) the retention of fish and blue crabs on the protective screens preceding the circulating-water pumps (impingement). The entrainment of fish eggs and larvae was examined in the spring when larvae were expected to be present in the source water body.

29.  *Turner, Joe. Chromium Concentrations in the Blue Crab (Callinectes sapidus): An Independent Study Project Conducted at the Hackensack Meadowlands Environmental Research Laboratory. May 1990. [1] Blue crabs were analyzed for total chromium concentrations to determine extent of contamination. The NJDEP and the HMDC supplied samples collected over a two year period from the Hackensack River near the Laurel Hill, from Sawmill Creek, and from Berry’s Creek Canal.

E.   Biological Studies – General Environmental

30.  *Coastal Environmental Services, Inc. AGFA Division of Miles Inc. 1993. [1a] Maps were prepared for all surrounding areas that could be affected by a discharge from an AGFA facility in Teterboro, covering areas both inside and outside of the HMD, but the maps are missing from the report. An environmentally sensitive areas protection plan and an environmental assessment to sample biota, water quality, soil/sediment and groundwater were designed, but no data was collected.

31.  *Edwards and Kelcey, Inc. Supplement to Environmental Assessment Report for NJ Transit’s Proposed Secaucus Transfer Station Northeast Corridor Track Modifications and Main Line Improvements. 1994. [1a] Supplemental environment assessment report including: 1) permit approvals; 2) water quality sampling results; and 3) a proposed offsite wetland mitigation conceptual design consisting of tidal mudflats and an impoundment.

32.  Foote, M. The Vascular Plants of the Hackensack River Area. Phytologia 50(1): 15-45. December 1981. [4] Details the 362 vascular plants taxa found along the Hackensack River from the Hackensack Meadowlands to the Oradell Dam.

33.  *Malcolm Pirnie, Inc. Bergen County Resource Recovery Facility: Draft Environment and Health Impact Statement. BCUA. 1985. [1a] Draft Environmental and Health Impact Statement submitted to NJDEP Division of Solid Waste, which included: 1) a flood insurance study; 2) historical and cultural reconnaissance; 3) biological resources inventories; 4) soils data; 5) water quality data; 6) recycling coordination/correspondence, 7) groundwater monitoring results (metals and nutrients); 8) coastal resources policies report; 8) supporting air quality impact documentation; 10) incineration bottom ash residue research study, and 11) habitat evaluation/mitigation plan. Although the proposed project is in Ridgefield, extensive biological resources inventories included the entire HMD.

34.  *Mattson, C. P. Ecological and Resource Management Plan for the Hackensack Meadowlands. 1978. [1a]A synopsis of what the then eight-year-old HMDC had learned about the Hackensack Estuary. Section 1 is an ecological primer, Section 2 provides information on the state of the estuary, and Section 3 presents natural resource management strategies for wetlands, water quality, open space, and land use planning.

35.  Netherlands Engineering Consultants, Inc. Report on the Feasibility of Reclaiming the Hackensack Meadows by Means of Closing the Hackensack River. 1958 [1a]Investigates the overall feasibility of reclamation of the Hackensack Meadows by means of closing the river. An assessment of the physical and economic problems arising out of or associated with the reclamation was completed. Consideration was given to alternative methods of protection.

36.  *USEPA, Office of Water Planning and Standards. A Water Quality Success Story. 1978. [1a] Provided an overview of the water quality improvements observed from 1971-1978. Included general information on the sewage treatment plants and wetland preservation efforts that all contributed to the improvement of the water quality. No field data was collected.

37.  Utzinger, Margaret. Hackensack River. 1988. [1a] Paper discussing “abuses” of the Hackensack River, including development in the upper watershed, the New Jersey Turnpike’s proposed expansion project, and the use of the river for cooling water at the PSEG Bergen Generating Station.

38.  William F. Cosulich Associates. Hudson County Resource Recovery Project: Preliminary Environmental and Health Impact Statement in Fulfillment of NJSA 13: 1E-26 Requirements. 1985. [1a] Preliminary Environmental and Health Impact Statement submitted to NJDEP for the proposed Hudson County resource recovery facility on the 150 acres Koppers Coke site in Kearny.  Included water quality, hydrology, topography/geology, and biological resource studies. The solid waste quantities, characteristics, and control, as well as an air quality impact assessment were also included.

F.   Geotechnical

39.  *Carswell, L.D., Appraisal of Water Resources in the Hackensack River Basin, New Jersey. June 1976. [1a]Details the geology and hydrology existing in the Hackensack River Basin, including descriptions of the bedrock, existing aquifers, and chemical quality of water.

40.  *Malcolm Pirnie, Inc. Bergen County Resource Recovery Facility: Draft Environment and Health Impact Statement. BCUA. 1985. [1a] Draft Environmental and Health Impact Statement submitted to NJDEP Division of Solid Waste, which included: 1) a flood insurance study; 2) historical and cultural reconnaissance; 3) biological resources inventories; 4) soils data; 5) water quality data; 6) recycling coordination/correspondence, 7) groundwater monitoring results (metals and nutrients); 8) coastal resources policies report; 8) supporting air quality impact documentation; 10) incineration bottom ash residue research study, and 11) habitat evaluation/mitigation plan. Although the proposed project is in Ridgefield, extensive biological resources inventories included the entire HMD.

41.  William F. Cosulich Associates. Hudson County Resource Recovery Project: Preliminary Environmental and Health Impact Statement in Fulfillment of NJSA 13: 1E-26 Requirements. 1985. [1a] Preliminary Environmental and Health Impact Statement submitted to NJDEP for the proposed Hudson County resource recovery facility on the 150 acres Koppers Coke site in Kearny.  Included water quality, hydrology, topography/geology, and biological resource studies. The solid waste quantities, characteristics, and control, as well as an air quality impact assessment were also included.

G.  Hydraulics and Hydrology

42.  *Carswell, L.D., Appraisal of Water Resources in the Hackensack River Basin, New Jersey. June 1976. [1a]Details the geology and hydrology existing in the Hackensack River Basin, including descriptions of the bedrock, existing aquifers, and chemical quality of water.

43.  *DiLorenzo, Joseph L. Ph.D., et al. Tidal and Water Quality Variability in an Urbanized Estuary. Abstracts of the Meadowlands Symposium. 2003. [1a]During 1988, tide and water quality data were collected intensively in the Hackensack Estuary. Tidal elevations were monitored continually at four estuarine stations and over a six-month period; current velocities were measured concurrently at one station near the mouth of the Hackensack River. Discrete water quality samples were collected at six main-stem estuarine stations and at two- to three-hour intervals. Harmonic analyses of tidal elevation data indicate that Hackensack Estuary tides are predominantly semi-diurnal, though modulated by diurnal and fortnightly components.

44.  *ERDC, HMDC, & USACE – NYD. Flood Control Survey. 2000. [2a] Survey performed for the HMD that consisted of: 1) cross-sections along the Hackensack River and its major tributaries, including Berry’s Creek, Penhorn Creek, Sack Creek, and the Cayuga Dyke; 2) identifying 30 flood control structures along the Hackensack River; and 3) locating all bridges and piers within the study area. In addition, digital aerials were flown and geo-referenced. The vertical datum for the survey was NGVD29. At 13 of the 30 flood control structures, tide gages and single beam acoustic Doppler current meters were installed and monitored to measure velocity, head difference, and discharge at these locations.

45.  *ERDC & USACE – NYD. The Hackensack Meadowlands Flood Control Study. 1998 – 2004 (On-going). [2a] Undertaken to develop a numerical hydraulic model of the Hackensack River and its associated tidal marshes and channels. A parent model (one-dimensional hydrologic) is being developed for the Hackensack River Basin, while child models (two-dimensional hydrologic) are being developed for Berry’s Creek, Penhorn Creek, Sack Creek, and the Cayuga Dyke. The study also includes the evaluation of the performance of proposed flood control structures and restored wetland areas with respect to flood elevations, as well as the effects of optimum maintenance on existing flood control structures.

46.  ERM-Southeast, Inc. 1.2.D Existing and Proposed Regional Plans: Task 1. 1985. [1a] A general literature search done by ERM-Southwest, Inc. This volume is a comprehensive review of all existing regional plans that encompass the project area (Berry’s Creek area). Zoning, water quality and flood management, air quality, quasi-govenrmental agency plans, and major development proposals were reviewed.

47.  *Konsevick, Edward. Sediment Geochemistry of the Hackensack Meadowlands: A Survey of Research Conducted in the Hackensack River Estuary. 1991. [1] Survey undertaken to show how this mixed estuary, where there is little riverwater input and tidal influence dominates circulation, functions in terms of particle associated pollutants in sediment. The papers reviewed cover the entire reach of the Lower Hackensack River and one of its major tributaries, Berry’s Creek.

48.  *Malcolm Pirnie, Inc. Bergen County Resource Recovery Facility: Draft Environment and Health Impact Statement. BCUA. 1985. [1a] Draft Environmental and Health Impact Statement submitted to NJDEP Division of Solid Waste, which included: 1) a flood insurance study; 2) historical and cultural reconnaissance; 3) biological resources inventories; 4) soils data; 5) water quality data; 6) recycling coordination/correspondence, 7) groundwater monitoring results (metals and nutrients); 8) coastal resources policies report; 8) supporting air quality impact documentation; 10) incineration bottom ash residue research study, and 11) habitat evaluation/mitigation plan. Although the proposed project is in Ridgefield, extensive biological resources inventories included the entire HMD.

49.  Miskewitz, Robert & Richard I. Hires. The Influence of the Hackensack Meadowlands on the Tidal Hydraulics of the Hackensack River. Abstracts of the Meadowlands Symposium. 2003. [1a] Observations of the tide and tidal currents in the Hackensack River were made using bottom mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers equipped with high-resolution pressure sensors. Ten-minute average water elevations and currents at 0.5-meter depth intervals over the entire water column were obtained at stations along the Hackensack River for periods ranging from 14 to 24 days.

50.  *Pandullo Quirk Associates. Mathematical Projection of Thermal Plumes: Hudson and Kearny Generating Station. PSE&G. 1978. [1a] Investigated temperature profiles in the Hackensack River as a result of operation of the plants under various meteorological, hydrodynamic, and Hudson and Kearny Generating Station plant operational characteristics. Included description/calibration of the model, hydrological/thermal characteristics of the Hackensack River, and projection of Hackensack River temperature distribution under various conditions.

51.  *PSE&G Company. Demonstration of Absence of Prior Appreciable Harm Respecting Application for Imposition of Alternative Thermal Effluent Limitations Bergen Steam Electric Generating Station Units No. 1 and No. 2. 1974. [1a] Presented data to the USEPA to demonstrate that the final thermal effluent limitations specified in the draft NPDES Discharge Permit for the Bergen Generating Station are more stringent than necessary to assure the protection and propagation of a balanced, indigenous population of fish, shellfish, and wildlife in and on the Hackensack River. In addition to providing information on the absence of prior harm, presented engineering and hydrologic data, water quality data, and a proposed thermal plume mapping study.

52.  *PSE&G Company. Demonstration of Absence of Prior Appreciable Harm Respecting Application for Imposition of Alternative Thermal Effluent Limitations Kearny Steam Electric Generating Station Units No. 7 and No. 8. 1974. [1a] Presented data to the USEPA to demonstrate that the final thermal effluent limitations specified in the draft NPDES Discharge Permit for the Kearny Generating Station are more stringent than necessary to assure the protection and propagation of a balanced, indigenous population of fish, shellfish, and wildlife in and on the Hackensack River. In addition to providing information on the absence of prior harm, presented engineering and hydrologic data, water quality data, and a proposed thermal plume mapping study.

53.  *Versar, Inc. Review and Evaluation of Thermal Effects Studies and Cooling Water Intake Structure Demonstrations of Impact for the Bergen, Hudson, Kearny, Linden, and Sewaren Generating Stations. First Progress Summary. 1989. [1a] Includes evaluation of site characteristics of the Hackensack River such as: 1) drainage/basin morphology; 2) anthropogenic influences; 3) freshwater inflow; 4) tidal flow; and 5) general water quality information, as they related to facility biota interactions, evaluation criteria, and evaluation methodology. Detailed information on water withdrawal, discharges, and traveling screens for the three Hackensack facilities was also included.

54.  William F. Cosulich Associates. Hudson County Resource Recovery Project: Preliminary Environmental and Health Impact Statement in Fulfillment of NJSA 13: 1E-26 Requirements. 1985. [1a] Preliminary Environmental and Health Impact Statement submitted to NJDEP for the proposed Hudson County resource recovery facility on the 150 acres Koppers Coke site in Kearny.  Included water quality, hydrology, topography/geology, and biological resource studies. The solid waste quantities, characteristics, and control, as well as an air quality impact assessment were also included.

55.  *Woodward-Clyde Consultants. Triaxial Thermal Plume Monitoring Program for Hudson and Kearny Generating Stations: Final Report. 1976. [1a] Presented results of a triaxial temperature program conducted to satisfy the monitoring requirements of the USEPA NPDES permits for PSEG (formerly PSE&G). Included methodology used, hydrology of the Hackensack River, and triaxial survey results. Surface distributions and cross-section views are presented for each of the four stages of the tide. A bathymetric survey was conducted to obtain river bottom profiles along each transect.

H.  Water and Sediments

56.  *Anonymous (HMDC). Biological Water Quality and Field Sampling Survey of the Hackensack Meadowlands. 1980. [1a]During a one-day sampling event, water quality was measured at 11 sites for temperature, salinity, DO, and TSS. Also set fish sampling nets in Berry’s Creek Canal and Sawmill Creek.

57.  Belton, Thomas, Bruce Ruppel, & Rovert Hazen (NJDEP). A Study of Dioxin Contamination in Select Finfish, Crustaceans, and Sediment of New Jersey Waterways. 1985. [1a] Samples were collected in the Passaic River, especially around the Diamond Alkai plant, as well as in the Hackensack River. Analyzed blue crabs for dioxin contamination, among other species.

58.  *Bonnevie, N.L., S.L. Huntley, B.W. Found, & R.J. Wenning. Trace Metal Contamination in Surficial Sediments from Newark Bay, New Jersey. Science of the Total Environment 144 (1-3):1-6. 1994. [2] Pb (275 ± 138 mg/kg) and Cu (116 ± 63 mg/kg) concentrations in sand sediments from Hackensack Area I were similar to those found in the Passaic River and the Arthur Kill. These results suggest that metal concentrations, particularly Cd, Hg, and Pb, in surficial sediments in the Passaic River, Hackensack River, and the Arthur Kill and portions of the Hackensack Meadowlands may pose a significant threat to aquatic biota.

59.  Cheng, C. & E. Konsevick. Trends in the Water Quality of an Urban Estuary: Hackensack Meadowlands, New Jersey. Coastal Water Resources. Proceedings of a Symposium Held in Wilmington, North Carolina. American Water Resources Association. 1988. [1a] NJMC has been conducting a summer water quality program since 1971. Of the 13 parameters evaluated, this study reports on just four: temperature, salinity, BOD, and DO. Parametric and non-parametric statistical analysis completed. Also analyzed changes in overall water quality of the Hackensack River.

60.  Clinton Bogert Associates. Summary Report: Impact Analysis of Sewage Treatment Plant Discharges on the Water Quality of the Lower Hackensack River (Volume 1). September 1990. [4] Evaluates whether additional treatment of the BCUA treatment plant effluents as stipulated in the Northeast Water Quality Management Plan and the NJDEP permit is needed. Surface runoff and river models were developed and verified by local data.

61.  *DiLorenzo, Joseph L. Ph.D., et al. Tidal and Water Quality Variability in an Urbanized Estuary. Abstracts of the Meadowlands Symposium. 2003. [1a]During 1988, tide and water quality data were collected intensively in the Hackensack Estuary. Tidal elevations were monitored continually at four estuarine stations and over a six-month period; current velocities were measured concurrently at one station near the mouth of the Hackensack River. Discrete water quality samples were collected at six main-stem estuarine stations and at two- to three-hour intervals. Harmonic analyses of tidal elevation data indicate that Hackensack Estuary tides are predominantly semi-diurnal, though modulated by diurnal and fortnightly components.

62.  *Edwards and Kelcey, Inc. Supplement to Environmental Assessment Report for NJ Transit’s Proposed Secaucus Transfer Station Northeast Corridor Track Modifications and Main Line Improvements. 1994. [1a] Supplemental environment assessment report including: 1) permit approvals; 2) water quality sampling results; and 3) a proposed offsite wetland mitigation conceptual design consisting of tidal mudflats and an impoundment.

63.  ERM-Southeast, Inc. 1.2.D Existing and Proposed Regional Plans: Task 1. 1985. [1a] A general literature search done by ERM-Southwest, Inc. This volume is a comprehensive review of all existing regional plans that encompass the project area (Berry’s Creek area). Zoning, water quality and flood management, air quality, quasi-govenrmental agency plans, and major development proposals were reviewed.

64.  Goeller, Arthur F. III. Heavy Metals and Radionuclides in Sediment of the Hackensack River, New Jersey. Rutgers University. October 1989. [1]The vertical and areal distribution of Cr, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, and Ni were determined for 12 sediment cores taken in creeks along the main channel of the Hackensack River.

65.  *Gunawardana, Vajira K., Po-Shu Huang, Tavit O. Najarian, & Rhomaios V. Ram. Impact Analysis of Sewage Treatment Plant Discharges of the Water Quality of the Lower Hackensack River. June 1992. [1] Analyzed the impacts of discharge from BCUA treatment plant on the dissolved oxygen regime of the lower Hackensack River. The three tributaries that were selected for this study were Sawmill Creek, Berry’s Creek, and Mill Creek.

66.  *Ichthyological Associates, Inc. Predictive Biological Information to Demonstrate the Passage and Maintenance of Representative Important Species: Demonstration Type III-Section 316 (a) of Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, PL 92-500 for Hudson and Kearny Generating Stations. 1978. [1a] Provides the results of laboratory studies on the temperature preference, temperature avoidance, and susceptibility to heat shock and cold shock of representative important species for the PSEG (formerly PSE7G) Hudson and Kearny generating stations. For each representative important species, life history, distribution in relation to water temperature, results and analysis of thermal effects experiments, and the predicted response to the Hudson and Kearny generating stations thermal plumes are discussed. Appendix B contains mathematical projections of the thermal plumes from the Hudson and Kearny generating stations.

67.  Konsevick, Edward. Hackensack River Water Quality: 1993-1996. March 1997. [1] Summary of data collected between 1993-1996 defines the then current status of the Hackensack River, and depicts apparent trends. The data summarized includes precipitation, dissolved oxygen, fecal coliform, and heavy metal concentrations

68.  *Konsevick, Edward. Sediment Geochemistry of the Hackensack Meadowlands: A Survey of Research Conducted in the Hackensack River Estuary. 1991. [1] Survey undertaken to show how this mixed estuary, where there is little riverwater input and tidal influence dominates circulation, functions in terms of particle associated pollutants in sediment. The papers reviewed cover the entire reach of the Lower Hackensack River and one of its major tributaries, Berry’s Creek.

69.  *Konsevick, Edward, Christine Cheng Hobble, & Paul Lupini. Monitoring Effects of Urban Land Use of Esturine Water Quality, Hackensack Meadowlands District, New Jersey. November 1994. [1] In 1993, the USGS, in cooperation with the HMDC, established a network of 14 ambient water monitoring sites, including the Hackensack River, Berry’s Creek, Penhorn Creek, Sawmill Creek, Mill Creek, and Cromakill Creek, to characterize the current status of water quality in the HMD. Salinity, DO, fecal coliform, pH, TSS, turbidity, total phosphorous, ammonia, sulfate, BOD, COD, heavy metal concentrations were measured at each of the monitoring sites.

70.  Konsevick, E., K. R. Barrett, & C. C. Hobble. Effects of Drought on Water Quality in the Lower Hackensack River. Proceedings, Annual Conference of the American Water Resources Association. 2002. [1a] The waters of the lower Hackensack River and tributaries have been monitored seasonally from 13 sites since 1993. Parameters monitored include: conventional field parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, salinity); heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, nickel, zinc); nutrients; solids; and bacteria. Correlated metals concentrations to rainfall amounts.

71.  Lo Pinto Associates, Inc. Determination of Tertiary Sewage Treatment Requirements for Waste Water Discharge into the Hackensack River at the Proposed Harmon Cove Discharge Site. 1978. [1a] Water samples were collected from the Hackensack River, then N or P was added to some samples, followed by the addition of phytoplankton, to determine the limiting nutrient.

72.  *Lo Pinto, Richard W. Waste Water Treatment: A Determination of Limiting Factors Through Biological Assay. Fairleigh Dickinson University. 1975. [1a] Identified chemicals released by sewage treatment plants to the Hackensack River that increase algae growth (limiting factors) to: 1) determine if it was desirable to add tertiary treatment and 2) direct the treatment at the proper chemical target.

73.  *Malcolm Pirnie, Inc. Bergen County Resource Recovery Facility: Draft Environment and Health Impact Statement. BCUA. 1985. [1a] Draft Environmental and Health Impact Statement submitted to NJDEP Division of Solid Waste, which included: 1) a flood insurance study; 2) historical and cultural reconnaissance; 3) biological resources inventories; 4) soils data; 5) water quality data; 6) recycling coordination/correspondence, 7) groundwater monitoring results (metals and nutrients); 8) coastal resources policies report; 8) supporting air quality impact documentation; 10) incineration bottom ash residue research study, and 11) habitat evaluation/mitigation plan. Although the proposed project is in Ridgefield, extensive biological resources inventories included the entire HMD.

74.  *Mattson, C. P. Ecological and Resource Management Plan for the Hackensack Meadowlands. 1978. [1a]A synopsis of what the then eight-year-old HMDC had learned about the Hackensack Estuary. Section 1 is an ecological primer, Section 2 provides information on the state of the estuary, and Section 3 presents natural resource management strategies for wetlands, water quality, open space, and land use planning.

75.  *Mattson, C., G. Potera, & M.E. Saks. Water Quality in a Disordered Ecosystem: A Report on the Water Quality Monitoring Study Performed in the Hackensack Meadowlands between June and September 1971. 1971. [1a] Part of a natural resource inventory on which to base future land use decisions and against which to make future comparisons. Chemistry and water quality were measured at 11 sites, including Berry’s Creek, Penhorn Creek, Losen Slote Creek, Bellman’s Creek, Moonachie Creek, Mill Creek, and the Hackensack River.

76.  Mattson, Chester P., Richard W. Lo Pinto, Joanne D. Lo Pinto. Hackensack River Determination of Tertiary Sewage Treatment Requirements for Waste Water Discharge. Proceedings of University Seminar on Pollution and Water Resources, Volume VI. Columbia University. 1975. [1a] Determined necessity for constructing a tertiary sewage treatment plant by the Hackensack River near Secaucus by analyzing the effect of N and K, which have been shown to be responsible for eutrophication, and can be removed from domestic waste water by tertiary treatment. Water samples collected from the Hackensack River near the Erie Lackawanna Railroad Bridge were used as a basis and N and K were added.

77.  *Pandullo Quirk Associates. Mathematical Projection of Thermal Plumes: Hudson and Kearny Generating Station. PSE&G. 1978. [1a] Investigated temperature profiles in the Hackensack River as a result of operation of the plants under various meteorological, hydrodynamic, and Hudson and Kearny Generating Station plant operational characteristics. Included description/calibration of the model, hydrological/thermal characteristics of the Hackensack River, and projection of Hackensack River temperature distribution under various conditions.

78.  Pecchioli, Joel A., et al. Mercury in the Hackensack River: Initial Findings of the NJ Toxics Reduction Workplan for NY-NJ Harbor. Abstracts of the Meadowlands Symposium. 2003. [1a] Presents the initial findings of the Phase 1 Studies for the New Jersey Toxics Reduction Workplan for NY-NJ Harbor that included the collection of water samples at three tidal locations and the head-of-tide in the Hackensack River.

79.  *PSE&G Company. Demonstration of Absence of Prior Appreciable Harm Respecting Application for Imposition of Alternative Thermal Effluent Limitations Bergen Steam Electric Generating Station Units No. 1 and No. 2. 1974. [1a] Presented data to the USEPA to demonstrate that the final thermal effluent limitations specified in the draft NPDES Discharge Permit for the Bergen Generating Station are more stringent than necessary to assure the protection and propagation of a balanced, indigenous population of fish, shellfish, and wildlife in and on the Hackensack River. In addition to providing information on the absence of prior harm, presented engineering and hydrologic data, water quality data, and a proposed thermal plume mapping study.

80.  *PSE&G Company. Demonstration of Absence of Prior Appreciable Harm Respecting Application for Imposition of Alternative Thermal Effluent Limitations Kearny Steam Electric Generating Station Units No. 7 and No. 8. 1974. [1a] Presented data to the USEPA to demonstrate that the final thermal effluent limitations specified in the draft NPDES Discharge Permit for the Kearny Generating Station are more stringent than necessary to assure the protection and propagation of a balanced, indigenous population of fish, shellfish, and wildlife in and on the Hackensack River. In addition to providing information on the absence of prior harm, presented engineering and hydrologic data, water quality data, and a proposed thermal plume mapping study.

81.  Tong, Huayl, James H. Simpson, Fredrika C. Moser, Stephen J. Monson, Michael L. Gross, Bruce L. Deck, & Richard F. Bopp. A Major Incident of Dioxin Contamination: Sediments of New Jersey Estuaries Environmental Science and Technology. 1991. [1a]Dioxin was measured in sediments and suspended matter samples collected near the Diamond Shamrock site in on the Passaic River in Newark. Be7 and Cs137 were also measured for dating. One sample was collected in the Hackensack River.

82.  *USEPA, Office of Water Planning and Standards. A Water Quality Success Story. 1978. [1a] Provided an overview of the water quality improvements observed from 1971-1978. Included general information on the sewage treatment plants and wetland preservation efforts that all contributed to the improvement of the water quality. No field data was collected.

83.  *Versar, Inc. Review and Evaluation of Thermal Effects Studies and Cooling Water Intake Structure Demonstrations of Impact for the Bergen, Hudson, Kearny, Linden, and Sewaren Generating Stations. First Progress Summary. 1989. [1a] Includes evaluation of site characteristics of the Hackensack River such as: 1) drainage/basin morphology; 2) anthropogenic influences; 3) freshwater inflow; 4) tidal flow; and 5) general water quality information, as they related to facility biota interactions, evaluation criteria, and evaluation methodology. Detailed information on water withdrawal, discharges, and traveling screens for the three Hackensack facilities was also included.

84.  William F. Cosulich Associates. Hudson County Resource Recovery Project: Preliminary Environmental and Health Impact Statement in Fulfillment of NJSA 13: 1E-26 Requirements. 1985. [1a] Preliminary Environmental and Health Impact Statement submitted to NJDEP for the proposed Hudson County resource recovery facility on the 150 acres Koppers Coke site in Kearny.  Included water quality, hydrology, topography/geology, and biological resource studies. The solid waste quantities, characteristics, and control, as well as an air quality impact assessment were also included.

85.  Wilson, Timothy P. & Jennifer L. Bonin. Sediment, Carbon, and Trace Contaminant Contributions to the New Jersey Meadowlands Area from the Hackensack River Basin. Abstracts of the Meadowlands Symposium. 2003. [1a] As part of the Toxics Reduction Workplan for the New York – New Jersey Harbor, conducted study to estimate the loads of suspended sediment, organic carbon, particulate nitrogen, and select trace elements at the head-of-tide of the Hackensack River. Trace organic compounds were measured in the suspended sediment and water, and include polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, and metals.

86.  *Woodward-Clyde Consultants. Triaxial Thermal Plume Monitoring Program for Hudson and Kearny Generating Stations: Final Report. 1976. [1a] Presented results of a triaxial temperature program conducted to satisfy the monitoring requirements of the USEPA NPDES permits for PSEG (formerly PSE&G). Included methodology used, hydrology of the Hackensack River, and triaxial survey results. Surface distributions and cross-section views are presented for each of the four stages of the tide. A bathymetric survey was conducted to obtain river bottom profiles along each transect.

I.    Historical/Cultural Resources

87.  Kardas, Susan & Edward McLarrabee. Cultural Resource Reconnaissance of the Hackensack River Tidal Barrier Hudson County, New Jersey. January 1982. [1a]A cultural resource reconnaissance was conducted for the immediate area of a proposed tidal barrier structure to be placed on the Hackensack River due south of Laurel Hill. Findings are that the study area has been marsh land for the last 2000 to 4000 years, with late 19th century industrial landfill on the south shore, and mid 20th century power generation and sanitary landfill on the north.

88.  *Malcolm Pirnie, Inc. Bergen County Resource Recovery Facility: Draft Environment and Health Impact Statement. BCUA. 1985. [1a] Draft Environmental and Health Impact Statement submitted to NJDEP Division of Solid Waste, which included: 1) a flood insurance study; 2) historical and cultural reconnaissance; 3) biological resources inventories; 4) soils data; 5) water quality data; 6) recycling coordination/correspondence, 7) groundwater monitoring results (metals and nutrients); 8) coastal resources policies report; 8) supporting air quality impact documentation; 10) incineration bottom ash residue research study, and 11) habitat evaluation/mitigation plan. Although the proposed project is in Ridgefield, extensive biological resources inventories included the entire HMD.

J.   Restoration/Remediation Design Plans

89.  County Planning Board, County of Bergen, N.J. The Hackensack River and Adjacent Areas. 1964. [2a] Plan for clearing the Hackensack River and adjacent tide lands of pollution, making them suitable for public use and development, primarily for conservation and recreation purposes. Included pollution clearing and prevention, river level control, flood prevention, and the creation of a freshwater lake for both an emergency supply and conservation and recreation use.

K. Bibliographic Updates                   

Site #35: Hackensack River